Review of Daily Canine Care by Doctor Jeff
Transparency disclosure: For each person who buys Daily Canine Care by clicking a link on this page, Reviewed By Science receives a small percentage of the sale. We would strongly recommend this product without compensation, but I want you to know all the potential motivations for Reviewed By Science writing this review. Transparency rules!
Review of Daily Canine Care
Daily Canine Care is one of the more impressive probiotic supplements I've come across. If you love your dog, you should give Daily Canine Care a serious look...here's why I say that...and why I believe this product is deserving of 5 out of 5 stars.
As a probiotic and super-nutrient formula, Daily Canine Care is packed with proven goodness. In terms of volume, Daily Canine Care has 20 billion CFU (colony-forming units) of 10 different probiotic strains (all highly studied and demonstrated to improve gut biome). In other words, your dog will receive the volume and variety of probiotics to make a difference. I especially like that this supplement includes Bifidobacterium animalis, which can deal with your dog's diarrhea while improving overall GI health.
The fact that your dogs will love the natural bacon flavor is another plus because they'll actually eat it. Tail-wagging goodness means that administering these beneficial bacteria just became easier.
The variety of probiotics not only helps keep a healthy balance of bacteria in the gut (as the various strains complement and control one another) but also ensures that Daily Canine Care addresses a range of common issues. These probiotics and super-nutrients help:
- Improve digestion
- Strengthen immunity
- Freshen breath and enhance dental health
- Provide a healthy skin and coat
Daily Canine Care may even help your dog lose weight.
Finally, I've gotten to know Dr. Jeff Werber. He's a well-regarded and highly accredited veterinarian in the Los Angeles area who has spent more than 35 years caring for animals. I know for a fact that he not only supplements his own fur-family members with these same ingredients but recommends them to his furry patients. Doctor Jeff stakes his reputation on this formula of probiotics and super-nutrients. And he backs that up with a 60-day, 100% money-back guarantee.
Dr. Jeff Werber and His Inspiration for Daily Canine Care
During a long and successful career, Dr. Jeff Werber has observed what other caring veterinarians have seen--and what you may have seen in your own life--the undeniable connection between diet and health. For this reason, he developed a probiotic and super-nutrient supplement to help augment the modern dog diet.
Daily Canine Care is an easy-to-administer powder that is mixed with food to help improve digestion, boost pet nutrition, increase immunity, and improve dental health. Additional benefits may include weight loss, healthy skin and coat and a calmer mood.
If Your Dog Loves Bacon...It Will Love the Taste
It's bacon! The commercial for doggie treats got it right. Dogs love bacon. Of course, so do we. Why's this important? If your dog doesn't like the taste of a supplement, it won't consume it. And from there on it becomes a battle to ensure your dog is getting its probiotics. That's not a problem with Daily Canine Care.
Daily Canine Care Ingredients List
Daily Canine Care is packed with probiotics and super-nutrients. In fact, the volume and variety of probiotic ingredients help ensure that your doggo is 1) receiving enough colony-forming units (CFU) to be effective and 2) from a wide range of strains that can address several digestive issues as well as complement one another and help keep the gut biome in balance.
Let's analyze these ingredients by category:
Daily Canine Care delivers 20 billion CFU from 10 different probiotic strains.
Immunity is important to your dog's good health. And Enterococcus faecium is a bacterial strain that is beneficial to helping improve digestion and relieve diarrhea and IBS. Better digestive health can, in turn, help with overall immunity. Marciňáková, in fact, documented a healthier gut biome and specifically improved lipid and protein profiles from a diet supplemented with E. faecium.A
Benyacoub's research on the E. faecium SF68 strain identified both stronger immunity and increased antibody protection.B However, while Bybee et al's suggested relief from diarrhea in shelter cats and dogs, but could not document a significant decline in parasites.C
This gram-positive, lactic acid producing microorganism is well studied and researched and found to be both beneficial and safe for human and other mammals. Some of the more interesting studies and clinical trials have focused on the L. brevis for its immunity-boosting properties. Specifically, L. brevis has been shown to improve the production of both immunoglubulinsD (proteins that function as antibodies) and interferonE (proteins that can inhibit replication of a virus).
As an added benefit, L. brevis can survive the digestive systems's acidic environment, enabling the bacteria to travel through and colonize in the intestines. Segawa further found that L. brevis can help improve liver health associated with Non-Alcoholic SteatoHepatitis.F
B. longum is a workhorse. To start, it is a gram-positive, rod-shaped microorganism that is found in the GI tracts of both humans and dogs. The studies suggest that, in fact, B. longum is among the earliest bacteria to colonize in an infant's digestive tract.
What's more, B. longum is a survivor in both low-oxygen and oxygen-rich environments and tolerates the gastric environment of acids and bile. For this reason, B. longum survives passage into the intestines. It also helps control bacterial growth and maintain a balance among gut microorganisms.
B. longum is known to exist in at least 32 bacterial strains--all safe and non-pathogenic. They feed on complex carbs (including soluble fiber inulin) and through fermentation convert these compounds into simple sugars and lactic acid that are easily absorbed for energy. Research shows that lactic acid can stimulate the immune system while reducing inflammation and oxidative stress.G
We also note that research studies are showing the potential for B. longum to help relieve stress and anxiety. How this works is not entirely understood, but nerves located in the gut are apparently stimulated and sending signals to the brain to relax.H,I
L. acidolphilus is another bacterial workhorse that is both acid and low-oxygen tolerant and able to survive digestive acids and bile. It is gram positive and, as with most Lactobacillus, metabolizes sugars throough fermentation to produce lactic acid, which is more easily digested and absorbed.
According to research, additional benefits include:
- Reducing the colonization of pathogens in the gut, including C. perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, and Salmonella typhimuriumJ
- Lowering serum cholesterol levels in mammals by integrating cholesterol into the bacteria's cell wall and excreting as stoolK
- And preventing dental caries by reducting colonization of Streptococcus mutansL
When it comes to fighting diarrhea in dogs, B. animalis is considered one of the best contenders. B. animalis is a gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic bacterium commonly found in the large intestines of dogs, humans and a number of other mammals.
In a 2014 study by Strompfová et al, after a two-week treatment with B. animalis B/12, dogs in the trial demonstrated 1) significantly lower rates of bacterial pathogens in their stools and 2) general reductions in both cholesterol and triglyceride levels as compared with animals in the control group. And in terms of overall health, the dogs receiving B. animalis probiotics demonstrated improved immune function.M
Also of interest is a 2009 study by Kelley and team.N Dogs supplemented with a B. animalis broth had significant reduction in the symptoms associated with acute idiopathic diarrhea.
Bifidobacterium bifidum, along with B. animalis, L. acidolphilus and many other probiotic bacteria, contribute to maintaining a healthy gut flora. B. bifidum (a gram-positive, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria) is commonly found in the vagina, colon and distal end of the small intestine. It's not only a natural component of breast milk but used in yogurt, cheese and other dairy products.
Studies suggest that B. bifidum is an important probiotic for several reasons:
- Acetate (a metabolic byproduct of B. bifidum) tightens the junctions of the gut's epithelial layer and strengthens the gut barrier.O
- It may increase production of the body's T cells (thus boosting immunity).P
- Healthy dogs given a probiotic with B. bifidum may exhibit greater resistance to the effects of antibiotics on the GI tract.Q
According to a recent study by Xu et al, Lactobacillus casei is one of several bacterium identified that can help in the treatment of dogs with diarrhea by improving the composition and function of the gut biome. More specifically, in conjunction with L. acidophilus, it produces enzymes that help the body digest carbs.R
L. casei is a lactic acid bacterium often found in milk and milk products as well as in the mouth and urinary tract of mammals. A further study on mice, suggests that L. casei may have a positive impact on the lipids in a high-fat diet as well as improve immune function.S
Lactobacillus plantarum is another probiotic that tolerates low-oxygen, high-acid and high temperature environments within the body. This gram-negative, bacilli-shaped bacterium is most frequently found in fermented foods and cheeses.
Most significant is the ability of L. plantarum to produce hydrogen peroxide, which guards the body against bacteria and other microorganisms in food. L. plantarum also produces antioxidants, which, in turn, protect the probiotic from its hydrogen peroxide byproduct.
Studies show that L. plantarum may:
This gram-positive, anaerobic, non-spore forming, rod is a lactic-acid producing bacterium that tolerates low-oxygen, high-acid conditions within the body and is commonly found in dairy and fermented foods.
Studies show that L. rhamnosus--an immune-bosting probiotic--is beneficial to both humans and dogs in several ways:
- Fighting Streptococcus mutans--the bacteria that causes dental caries and periodontal disease.W
- Reducing the immunologic markers of atopy (allergic reaction) in puppies; note that study did not observe a clinical improvement in symptoms.X
- Combating bacterial vaginosis (yeast infection).Y
Bacillus coagulans is a gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming bacterium that tolerates dry, low-oxygen, acidic environments. B. coagulans can dominate the gut, thus helping to reduce problems associated with C. difficile and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE).Z In a sense, B. coagulans can crowd out pathogenic bacteria and shift the microbiome with healthy bacteria.AA
Doctor Jeff uses inulin as a prebiotic in Daily Canine Care. If you've ever wondered about the difference between prebiotics and probiotics and the role prebiotics play in gut health, let me explain: If you think of the gut biome as a garden of beneficial bacteria growing and thriving throughout the digestive system, prebiotics are the fertilizer that help your garden grow.
According to Verlinden et al, inulin administered to dogs helped to increase levels of immunoglobulin and bacteria.AB And in 2017, Garcia-Mazcorro and team demonstrated that inulin boosted bacterial flora.AC
But that's not all. Inulin as a prebiotic is well-studied in humans and other mammals, and it's shown to be an effective source of fiber, which plays an important role in the digestive process. Specifically, Strompfová and team noted that administering the prebiotic inulin in combination with Lactobacillus was superior to the probiotic alone for relieving constipation in dogs.AD
Finally, when inulin is added to a dog's food, the good bacteria Bifidobacteria increases while fecal ammonia and amines decline as food breaks down.AE
Ascophyllum nodosum is a large, cold-water brown kelp generally found off the shores of the north Atlantic. As a super-nutrient, it brings many beneficial properties. It is a rich source of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (macronutrients); calcium, magnesium, copper, iron and zinc (micronutrients); polysaccharides; amino acids; and proteins.
Studies show that Ascophyllum nodosum has potential in inhibiting the spread of melanomaAF and reducing risk factors associated with metabolic syndromeAG (a cluster of disorders that may increase the risk of stroke, heart disease and/or Type 2 diabetes) in humans.
In one study that Gawor conducted as a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial over the course of several months showed an observable reduction in plaque build-up and periodontial scores in dogs that received kibble enriched with Ascophyllum nodosum.AH
L-Carnitine (as Carniking TM50)
L-Carnitine is an amino acid concentrated in tissues of muscle, brain and liver that helps to turn fat into energy by transporting long-chain fatty acids into cell mitochondria. Although naturally produced, L-Carnitine is consumed by eating animal meats and dairy; it is also taken as a supplement.
While the significance and benefits of L-Carnitine have been under debate for a while, two studies suggest human benefits:
- Samimi's 2016 study of shows a reduction in both obesity and lipids in women diagnosed with polycystic ovarian syndrome.AI
- A 2019 study suggests that L-Carnitine may reduce the risk of arrythmia as well as the size of an infarct after an acute myocardial infarction.AJ
Finally, L-Carnitine may improve cognition and memory in aging dogs.AK
Who would have thought that natural bacon flavor could be "extracted" and turned into a flavoring powder. Well that's exactly what Doctor Jeff is doing.
They actually identify the molecules that give bacon its flavor, remove these and dry them into a powder, which is then added to Daily Canine Care. Yup, pups large and small love this, which means they will happily take their probiotics.
Are There Any Other Ingredients I Should Be Concerned About?
No, and that's one of the things that I like Doctor Jeff's Daily Canine Care. All the junk has been left out. There are:
- NO artificial ingredients
- NO fillers
- NO preservatives
- NO colorings
This is an all-natural supplement--just probiotics, prebiotic, super-nutrients and natural bacon flavor. What could be better for your dog...and you?
Will Daily Canine Care Cause Any Allergic Reaction?
While there is always an exception to every generalization, Daily Canine Care is unlikely to cause any sort of an allergic reaction in your doggums. In fact, quite the opposite. Daily Canine Care may relieve some of your pup's existing allergies.
In fact, the standard dog diet--whether canned or dry food--is much more likely to cause a food intolerance that manifests as an allergic reaction. Hot spots, dry skin, itching, digestive problems and more are often caused by your dog consuming wheat, corn, soy, even some proteins.
Doctor Jeff uses quality, natural ingredients, and no fillers, colorings etc that could cause problems. In any case, if your dog has allergies or intolerances, discuss the benefits of Daily Canine Care with your veterinarian. And if you notice a negative reaction, discontinue use.
Dosage Instructions for Daily Canine Care
Daily Canine Care is for intermittent or supplemental use. It is easy to administer. Just add a scoop(s) of the probiotic and supernutrient powder to your dog's regular food (wet or dry) and mix. The amount of powder is based on your dog's weight. See chart above.
You can add the entire day's dose to one meal or spread it out over morning and evening feedings. Your choice.
As I always suggest, take supplements seriously and check with your veterinarian before starting to administer Daily Canine Care. This is especially important if your pup has health issues, is under a vet's care or on medication.
Finally, storage is easy. Although the powder contains live (viable) naturally occuring bacterial microorganisms, refrigeration is NOT required.
However, you need to keep Keep Daily Canine Care OUT OF THE REACH of children and pets!
Are there Any Scams or Complaints About Daily Canine Care That I Need to Know?
While I check various Internet sites regularly, I have not seen any evidence of scams, product problems or complaints associated with Daily Canine Care. For your own protection, however, you are always advised to purchase supplements directly from the manufacturer. Using any of the links on this page will take you directly to Doctor Jeff's website and order page.
Doctor Jeff Provides Good Customer Support and Money-Back Guarantee
As the name suggests, Doctor Jeff's "Happiness Guarantee" is designed with you the customer in mind. Doctor Jeff is confident that you and your dog will like this supplement. However if there are any problems or side effects, you are protected with a 60-day, 100% money-back guarantee. And that includes shipping and handling fees. Just be sure to contact Doctor Jeff within 60 days of your original purchase date.
Call 888-580-5099 as late as 10 PM on weekdays to reach someone live (I like that) or use the online contact form.
Where to Buy Daily Canine Care?
The best way to buy Daily Canine Care is directly through Doctor Jeff's website. You're assured of the safest buying experience, the best prices (discounts on volume purchases) and the freshest ingredients. Use any of the links on this page to go directly to Doctor Jeff's Daily Canine Care...and save.
Best For: Improving Dog Gut Health and Boosting Immunity
Click here to buy direct (best price)
No Risk – 60-day money back guarantee
Full Reference List
- Marciňáková M, Simonová M, Strompfová V, Lauková A. Oral application ofEnterococcus faecium strain EE3 in healthy dogs. Folia microbiologica. 2006 May 1;51(3):239.
- Benyacoub J, Czarnecki-Maulden GL, Cavadini C, Sauthier T, Anderson RE, Schiffrin EJ, von der Weid T. Supplementation of food with Enterococcus faecium (SF68) stimulates immune functions in young dogs. The Journal of nutrition. 2003 Apr 1;133(4):1158-62.
- Bybee SN, Scorza AV, Lappin MR. Effect of the probiotic Enterococcus faecium SF68 on presence of diarrhea in cats and dogs housed in an animal shelter. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 2011 Jul;25(4):856-60.
- Segawa S, Nakakita Y, Takata Y, Wakita Y, Kaneko T, Kaneda H, Watari J, Yasui H. Effect of oral administration of heat-killed Lactobacillus brevis SBC8803 on total and ovalbumin-specific immunoglobulin E production through the improvement of Th1/Th2 balance. International journal of food microbiology. 2008 Jan 15;121(1):1-0.
- Kishi A, Uno K, Matsubara Y, Okuda C, Kishida T. Effect of the oral administration of Lactobacillus brevis subsp. coagulans on interferon-alpha producing capacity in humans. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 1996 Aug 1;15(4):408-12.
- Segawa S, Wakita Y, Hirata H, Watari J. Oral administration of heat-killed Lactobacillus brevis SBC8803 ameliorates alcoholic liver disease in ethanol-containing diet-fed C57BL/6N mice. International journal of food microbiology. 2008 Dec 10;128(2):371-7.
- Perdigón G, Fuller R, Raya R. Lactic Acid Bacteria and their Effect on the Immune System. Curr. Issues Intest. Microbiol. (2001) 2(1): 27-42.
- Crayan JF, Dinan TG. Mind-altering microorganisms: the impact of the gut microbiota on brain and behaviour. Nature reviews neuroscience. 2012 Oct;13(10):701.
- Bercik P, Park AJ, Sinclair D, Khoshdel A, Lu J, Huang X, Deng Y, Blennerhassett PA, Fahnestock M, Moine D, Berger B. The anxiolytic effect of Bifidobacterium longum NCC3001 involves vagal pathways for gut–brain communication.
- Bertuccini L, Russo R, Iosi F, Superti F. Effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus acidophilus on bacterial vaginal pathogens. International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology. 2017 Jun;30(2):163-7.
- Anderson JW, Gilliland SE. Effect of fermented milk (yogurt) containing Lactobacillus acidophilus L1 on serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic humans. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 1999 Feb 1;18(1):43-50.
- Bafna HP, Ajithkrishnan CG, Kalantharakath T, Singh RP, Kalyan P, Vathar JB, Patel HR. Effect of short-term consumption of amul probiotic yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 on salivary streptococcus mutans count in high caries risk individuals. International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research. 2018 Apr;8(2):111.
- Strompfová V, Simonová MP, Gancarčíková S, Mudroňová D, Farbáková J, Mad’ari A, Lauková A. Effect of Bifidobacterium animalis B/12 administration in healthy dogs. Anaerobe. 2014 Aug 1;28:37-43.
- Kelley RL, Minikhiem D, Kiely B, O’Mahony L. Clinical benefits of probiotic canine-derived Bifidobacterium animalis strain AHC7 in dogs with acute idiopathic diarrhea. Veterinary Journal. 2009;10(3):121-30.
- Hsieh CY, Osaka T, Moriyama E, Date Y, Kikuchi J, Tsuneda S. Strengthening of the intestinal epithelial tight junction by Bifidobacterium bifidum. Physiological reports. 2015 Mar 1;3(3).
- Verma R, Lee C, Jeun EJ, Yi J, Kim KS, Ghosh A, Byun S, Lee CG, Kang HJ, Kim GC, Jun CD. Cell surface polysaccharides of Bifidobacterium bifidum induce the generation of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. Science immunology. 2018 Oct 19;3(28):eaat6975.
- Whittemore JC, Moyers TD, Price JM. Randomized, controlled, crossover trial of prevention of antibiotic‐induced gastrointestinal signs using a synbiotic mixture in healthy research dogs. Journal of veterinary internal medicine. 2019 Jul;33(4):1619-26.
- Xu H, Zhao F, Hou Q, Huang W, Liu Y, Zhang H, Sun Z. Metagenomic analysis revealed beneficial effects of probiotics in improving the composition and function of the gut microbiota in dogs with diarrhoea. Food & function. 2019.
- Park HE, Jang YJ, Jung YH, Lee WK. Hypocholesterolemic effects of multi-lactic acidbacteria (Lactobacillus casei WK3, Enterococcus faecium WK5, Bifidobacterium longum WK9, and Lactobacillus plantarum K-1) in C57BL/6J mouse fed a high fat diet. 대한수의학회 학술대회발표집. 2015 Oct:387-387.
- Gómez-Gallego C, Junnila J, Männikkö S, Hämeenoja P, Valtonen E, Salminen S, Beasley S. A canine-specific probiotic product in treating acute or intermittent diarrhea in dogs: A double-blind placebo-controlled efficacy study. Veterinary microbiology. 2016 Dec 25;197:122-8.
- Hu J, Wang C, Ye L, Yang W, Huang H, Meng F, Shi S, Ding Z. Anti-tumour immune effect of oral administration of Lactobacillus plantarum to CT26 tumour-bearing mice. Journal of biosciences. 2015 Jun 1;40(2):269-79.
- Davis DJ, Doerr HM, Grzelak AK, Busi SB, Jasarevic E, Ericsson AC, Bryda EC. Lactobacillus plantarum attenuates anxiety-related behavior and protects against stress-induced dysbiosis in adult zebrafish. Scientific reports. 2016 Sep 19;6:33726.
- Toiviainen A, Jalasvuori H, Lahti E, Gursoy U, Salminen S, Fontana M, Flannagan S, Eckert G, Kokaras A, Paster B, Söderling E. Impact of orally administered lozenges with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 on the number of salivary mutans streptococci, amount of plaque, gingival inflammation and the oral microbiome in healthy adults. Clinical oral investigations. 2015 Jan 1;19(1):77-83.
- Marsella R. Evaluation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG for the prevention of atopic dermatitis in dogs. Am J Vet Res. 2009;70(6):735–40.
- Bertuccini L, Russo R, Iosi F, Superti F. Effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus acidophilus on bacterial vaginal pathogens. International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology. 2017 Jun;30(2):163-7.
- Donskey CJ, Hoyen CK, Das SM, Farmer S, Dery M, Bonomo RA. Effect of oral Bacillus coagulans administration on the density of vancomycin‐resistant enterococci in the stool of colonized mice. Letters in applied microbiology. 2001 Jul;33(1):84-8.
- Jurenka JS. Bacillus coagulans. Alternative Medicine Review. 2012 Mar 1;17(1):76-82.
- Verlinden A, Hesta M, Hermans M, Janssens G P J. The effects of inulin supplementation of diets with or without hydrolysed protein sources on digestibility, faecal characteristics, haematology and immunoglobulins in dogs. Br J Nutr. 2006 Nov;96(5):936-44.
- Garcia-Mazcorro JF, Barcenas-Walls JR, Suchodolski JS, Steiner JM. Molecular assessment of the fecal microbiota in healthy cats and dogs before and during supplementation with fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and inulin using high-throughput 454-pyrosequencing. Peer J. 2017 Apr 18;5:e3184.
- Strompfová V,Lauková A, Cilik D. Synbiotic administration of canine-derived strain Lactobacillus fermentum CCM 7421 and inulin to healthy dogs. Canadian J of Microbiology. 2013 May;59(5):347-52.
- Hussein HS, Hussein Flickinger EA, Fahey Jr GC. Petfood applications of inulin and oligofructose. The Journal of Nutrition. July 1;129(7):1454S-56S.
- Abu R, Jiang Z, Ueno M, Isaka S, Nakazono S, Okimura T, Cho K, Yamaguchi K, Kim D, Oda T. Anti-metastatic effects of the sulfated polysaccharide ascophyllan isolated from Ascophyllum nodosum on B16 melanoma. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. 2015 Mar 20;458(4):727-32.
- De Martin S, Gabbia D, Carrara M, Ferri N. The Brown Algae Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum Reduce Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors: A Clinical Study. Natural Product Communications. 2018
- Gawor JP, Jank M, Jodkowska KA, Klim E, Svensson UK. Effects of edible treats containing Ascophyllum nodosum on the oral health of dogs: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled single-center study. Frontiers in veterinary science. 2018;5:168.
- Samimi M, Jamilian M, Ebrahimi FA, Rahimi M, Tajbakhsh B, Asemi Z. Oral carnitine supplementation reduces body weight and insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled trial. Clinical endocrinology. 2016 Jun;84(6):851-7.
- DiNicolantonio JJ, Niazi AK, McCarty MF, Lavie CJ, Liberopoulos E, O’Keefe JH. L-carnitine for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. Reviews in cardiovascular medicine. 2019 Jun 14;15(1):52-62.
- Snigdha S, de Rivera C, Milgram NW, Cotman CW. Effect of mitochondrial cofactors and antioxidants supplementation on cognition in the aged canine. Neurobiology of aging. 2016 Jan 1;37:171-8.